2 References and Terminology

2.1 Conventions

In this Technical Report, several words are used to signify the requirements of the specification. These words are always capitalized. More information can be found in RFC 2119 [13].

MUST This word, or the term “REQUIRED”, means that the definition is an absolute requirement of the specification.
MUST NOT This phrase means that the definition is an absolute prohibition of the specification.
SHOULD This word, or the term “RECOMMENDED”, means that there could exist valid reasons in particular circumstances to ignore this item, but the full implications need to be understood and carefully weighed before choosing a different course.
SHOULD NOT This phrase, or the phrase “NOT RECOMMENDED” means that there could exist valid reasons in particular circumstances when the particular behavior is acceptable or even useful, but the full implications need to be understood and the case carefully weighed before implementing any behavior described with this label.
MAY This word, or the term “OPTIONAL”, means that this item is one of an allowed set of alternatives. An implementation that does not include this option MUST be prepared to inter-operate with another implementation that does include the option.

The key words “DEPRECATED” and “OBSOLETED” in this Technical Report are to be interpreted as defined in TR-106 [60].

2.2 References

The following references are of relevance to this Technical Report. At the time of publication, the editions indicated were valid. All references are subject to revision; users of this Technical Report are therefore encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most recent edition of the references listed below.

A list of currently valid Broadband Forum Technical Reports is published at https://www.broadband-forum.org.

3GPP TS 23.501, System architecture for the 5G System (5GS); Stage 2, 3GPP SA WG2
3GPP TS 23.503, Policy and charging control framework for the 5G System (5GS); Stage 2, 3GPP CT WG4, 2019
Data Elements Specification, Data Elements Specification Version 1.0, 2019
draft-boucadair-pcp-flow-examples, Port Control Protocol (PCP) Flow Examples, IETF, 2015
ETSI TS 102 690 v1.1.6, Machine-to-Machine Communications (M2M Functional Architecture), ETSI, 2012
ETSI TS 102 921 v1.1.6, M2M mIa, dIa and mId Interfaces, ETSI, 2012
IANA Method Tokens Registry, Method Tokens, IANA, 2008
ICSA Baseline Modular Firewall Certification Criteria, Baseline module - version 4.1, ICSA Labs, 2008
ICSA Residential Modular Firewall Certification Criteria, Required Services Security Policy - Residential Category module - version 4.1, ICSA Labs, 2008
IEEE Std 802.1D-2004, Media Access Control (MAC) Bridges, IEEE, 2004
IEEE Std 802.1Q-2011, MAC Bridges and Virtual Bridge Local Area Networks, IEEE, 2011
REC-xmlschema-0-20041028, XML Schema Part 0: Primer Second Edition, W3C, 2004
RFC 2119, Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels, IETF, 1997
RFC 2460, Internet Protocol, Version 6 (IPv6) Specification, IETF, 1998
RFC 2464, Transmission of IPv6 Packets over Ethernet Networks, IETF, 1998
RFC 2597, Assured Forwarding PHB Group, IETF, 1999
RFC 2661, Layer Two Tunneling Protocol ‘L2TP’, IETF, 1999
RFC 2784, Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE), IETF, 2000
RFC 2863, The Interfaces Group MIB, IETF, 2000
RFC 2890, Key and Sequence Number Extensions to GRE, IETF, 2000
RFC 3246, An Expedited Forwarding PHB (Per-Hop Behavior), IETF, 2002
RFC 3261, SIP: Session Initiation Protocol, IETF, 2002
RFC 3315, Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6), IETF, 2003
RFC 3435, Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP) Version 1.0, IETF
RFC 3633, IPv6 Prefix Options for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) version 6, IETF, 2003
RFC 3986, Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax, IETF
RFC 4119, A Presence-based GEOPRIV Location Object Format, IETF, 2005
RFC 4122, A Universally Unique IDentifier (UUID) URN Namespace, IETF, 2005
RFC 4191, Default Router Preferences and More-Specific Routes, IETF, 2005
RFC 4193, Unique Local IPv6 Unicast Addresses, IETF, 2005
RFC 4301, Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol, IETF, 2005
RFC 4302, IP Authentication Header, IETF, 2005
RFC 4303, IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP), IETF, 2005
RFC 4479, A Data Model for Presence, IETF, 2006
RFC 4566, SDP: Session Description Protocol, IETF, 2006
RFC 4861, Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6), IETF, 2007
RFC 4862, IPv6 Stateless Address Autoconfiguration, IETF, 2007
RFC 5072, IP Version 6 over PPP, IETF, 2007
RFC 5139, Revised Civic Location Format For Presence Information Data Format Location Object (PIDF-LO), IETF, 2008
RFC 5491, GEOPRIV Presence Information Data Format Location Object (PIDF-LO) Usage Clarification, Considerations, and Recommendations, IETF, 2009
RFC 5969, IPv6 Rapid Deployment on IPv4 Infrastructures (6rd) - Protocol Specification, IETF, 2010
RFC 5996, Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2 (IKEv2), IETF, 2010
RFC 6106, IPv6 Router Advertisement Option for DNS Configuration, IETF, 2010
RFC 6333, Dual-Stack Lite Broadband Deployments Following IPv4 Exhaustion, IETF, 2011
RFC 6334, Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6) Option for Dual-Stack Lite, IETF, 2011
RFC 6887, Port Control Protocol (PCP), IETF, 2013
RFC 6970, Universal Plug and Play (UPnP) Internet Gateway Device (IGD) - Port Control Protocol (PCP) Interworking Function, IETF, 2013
RFC 7291, DHCP Options for the Port Control Protocol (PCP), IETF, 2014
RFC 7488, Port Control Protocol (PCP) Server Selection, IETF, 2015
RFC 7594, A Framework for Large-Scale Measurement of Broadband Performance (LMAP), IETF, 2015
RFC 7597, Mapping of Address and Port with Encapsulation (MAP), IETF, 2015
RFC 7598, DHCPv6 Options for configuration of Softwire Address and Port Mapped Clients, IETF, 2015
RFC 7599, Mapping of Address and Port using Translation (MAP-T), IETF, 2015
RFC 7648, Port Control Protocol (PCP) Proxy Function, IETF, 2015
RFC 8193, Information Model for Large-Scale Measurement Platforms (LMAPs), IETF, 2017
RFC 8822, 5G Wireless Wireline Convergence User Plane Encapsulation (5WE), IETF, 2021
TR-059, DSL Evolution - Architecture Requirements for the Support of QoS-Enabled IP Services, Broadband Forum, 2003
TR-069 Amendment 6, CPE WAN Management Protocol, Broadband Forum, 2018
TR-101 Issue 2, Migration to Ethernet Based DSL Aggregation, Broadband Forum, 2011
TR-106 Amendment 8, Data Model Template for CWMP Endpoints and USP Agents, Broadband Forum, 2018
TR-124 Issue 5, Functional Requirements for Broadband Residential Gateway Devices, Broadband Forum, 2016
TR-143 Amendment 3, Enabling Network Throughput Performance Tests and Statistical Monitoring, Broadband Forum, 2017
TR-177 Corrigendum 1, IPv6 in the context of TR-101, Broadband Forum, 2017
TR-187 Issue 2, IPv6 for PPP Broadband Access, Broadband Forum, 2013
TR-232, Bulk Data Collection, Broadband Forum, 2012
TR-304, Broadband Access Service Attributes and Performance Metrics, Broadband Forum, 2015
TR-369 Issue 1 Corrigendum 2, User Services Platform, Broadband Forum, 2018
TR-470, 5G Wireless Wireline Convergence Architecture, Broadband Forum, 2020
X.200, Information technology - Open Systems Interconnection - Basic Reference Model: The basic model, ITU-T, 1994
ZigBee 2007 Specification, ZigBee 2007 Specification, ZigBee Alliance, 2007

2.3 Definitions

The following terminology is used throughout this Technical Report.

5G Residential Gateway A CPE that uses native 5G control plane N1 signaling.
ACS Auto-Configuration Server. This is a component in the broadband network responsible for CWMP auto-configuration of the CPE for advanced services.
Agent A generic term that refers (as appropriate) to either a CWMP Endpoint or to a USP Agent.
AGF A function connecting wireline access networks to the 5GC. AGF-CP is the control plane while AGF-UP is the user plane of the AGF.
AMF The AMF is a 5G control plane function that terminates N1 and N2. It is responsible for mobility and access related functions.
CPE Customer Premises Equipment; refers (as appropriate) to any CWMP-enabled [58] or USP-enabled [67] device and therefore covers both Internet Gateway devices and LAN-side end devices.
Command A named element allowing a USP Controller to execute an operation on a USP Agent. This concept does not apply to CWMP, which uses Objects and/or Parameters to simulate operations.
Component A named collection of Objects and/or Parameters and/or Profiles that can be included anywhere within a Data Model.
Controller A generic term that refers (as appropriate) to either a CWMP ACS or a USP Controller.
CWMP CPE WAN Management Protocol. Defined in TR-069 [58], CWMP is a communication protocol between an ACS and a CWMP-enabled CPE that defines a mechanism for secure auto-configuration of a CPE and other CPE management functions in a common framework.
CWMP Endpoint A CWMP termination point used by a CWMP-enabled CPE for communication with the ACS.
Data Model A hierarchical set of Objects, Parameters, Commands and/or Events that define the managed objects accessible via a particular Agent.
Device Used here as a synonym for CPE.
DM Instance Data Model Schema instance document. This is an XML document that conforms to the DM Schema and to any additional rules specified in or referenced by the DM Schema.
DM Schema Data Model Schema. This is the XML Schema [12] that is used for defining data models for use with CWMP and USP.
Downstream Interface A physical interface object whose Upstream parameter is set to false, or an interface that is associated with such a physical interface via the InterfaceStack. For example, a downstream IP Interface is an IP.Interface object that is associated with an Upstream=false physical layer interface.
Event An indication that something of interest has happened that requires the Agent to notify the Controller.
Fixed Network Residential Gateway A CPE connecting a home LAN to the WAN, which does not exchange N1 signaling with the 5GC.
Interface Object A type of Object that models a network interface or protocol layer. Commonly referred to as an interface. They can be stacked, one on top of the other, using Path References in order to dynamically define the relationships between interfaces.
N1 Reference point between the 5G-RG and the AMF and between the AGF and AMF in case of FN-RG.
N2 Reference point between W-5GAN and AMF. On the W-5GAN side, the termination point is the AGF-CP.
N3 Reference point between W-5GAN and UPF. On the W-5GAN side, the termination point is the AGF-UP.
Object An internal node in the name hierarchy, i.e., a node that can have Object, Parameter, Command and/or Event children. An Object name is a Path Name.
Parameter A name-value pair that represents part of a CPE or USP Agent’s configuration or status. A Parameter name is a Path Name.
Path Name A name that has a hierarchical structure similar to files in a directory, with each level separated by a “.” (dot). References an Object, Parameter, Command or Event.
Path Reference Describes how a parameter can reference another parameter or object via its path name (A.2.3.4/TR-106 [60]). Such a reference can be weak or strong (Section A.2.3.6/TR-106 [60]).
Upstream Interface A physical interface object whose Upstream parameter is set to true, or an interface that is associated with such a physical interface via the InterfaceStack. For example, an upstream IP Interface is an IP.Interface object that is associated with an Upstream=true physical layer interface.
USP User Services Platform. Defined in TR-369 [67], USP is an evolution of CWMP that allows applications to manipulate Service Elements in a network of Controllers and Agents.
USP Agent A USP Agent is a USP Endpoint that exposes Service Elements to one or more USP Controllers.
USP Controller A USP Controller is a USP Endpoint that manipulates Service Elements through one or more USP Agents.
USP Endpoint A USP Endpoint is a termination point for a USP message.
Wireline 5G Access Network This is a wireline AN that can connect to a 5G core via the AGF. The egress interfaces of a W-5GAN form the border between access and core. The interfaces are N2 for the control plane and N3 for the user plane.

2.4 Abbreviations

This Technical Report uses the following abbreviations:

3GPP Third Generation Partnership Project
5G-RG 5G Residential Gateway
5QI 5G QoS Indicator
5WE 5G Wireline Encapsulation
AAA Authentication, Authorization and Accounting
AGF Access Gateway Function
ARP Allocation and Retention Priority
ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode
ATSSS Access Traffic Steering Switching and Splitting
BNG Broadband Network Gateway
CGN Carrier Grade NAT
CUPS Control User Plane Separation
DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
DHCPv6 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6
DNN Data Network Name
DSCP Differentiated Services Code Point
DSL Digital Subscriber Line
FMIF Fixed Mobile Interworking Function
FN-RG Fixed Network Residential Gateway
GBR Guaranteed Bit Rate
IoT Internet of Things
IP Internet Protocol
IPsec Internet Protocol Security
LCP Link Control Protocol
M2M Machine to Machine
NAS Non Access Stratum
NAT Network Address Translation
NSCL Network Service Capability Layer
OSI Open Systems Interconnection
PCF Policy Control Function
PCO Protocol Configuration Options
PCP Port Control Protocol
PDU Protocol Data Unit
PPP Point-to-Point Protocol
PPPoE Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet
PTM Packet Transfer Mode
QFI QoS Flow Indicator
QoS Quality of Service
REM Remote Entity Management
RG Residential Gateway
RPC Remote Procedure Call
RQI Reflective QoS Indicator
SCL Service Capability Layer
S-NSSAI Single Network Slice Selection Assistance Information
SSID Service Set Identifier
TR Technical Report
UPF User Plane Function
URI Uniform Resource Identifier [26]
URL Uniform Resource Locator [26]
URSP User equipment Route Selection Policy
USB Universal Serial Bus
UUID Universally Unique IDentifier
VLAN Virtual Local Area Network
W-5GAN Wireline 5G Access Network
WFA Wi-Fi Alliance
WWC Wireline Wireless Convergence
xREM x (Device or Gateway) Remote Entity Management
ZDO ZigBee Device Object